learningObject organizes topic references to DITA learning topics as a learning object.

A <learningObject> follows a specific sequence of topic references to learning content, starting with a learning plan, then a learning overview or learning pre-assessment, one or more learning content topics, a learning summary, and one or more learning post-assessment topics.

By default, the topic references in a <learningObject> are expected to use the learning-specific topic types. However, the @href can point to content of any type that you want to structure as a learning object. In this way, you can structure any existing DITA content as a learning object, and then take advantage of the learning-specific processing available for building and packaging that content for delivery in a learning system or learning context.

Content models

See appendix for information about this element in OASIS document type shells.


+ map/topicref learningmap-d/learningObject


<map title="learningobject_example">
 <!-- learningObject clusters can appear anywhere in a map hierarchy but always
     follow a consistent information pattern within the LO -->
 <learningObject collection-type="sequence" href="topOverview.dita" type="learningOverview">
  <learningPlanRef href="testlearningPlan.dita" type="learningPlan">
  <learningOverviewRef href="testlearningOverview.dita" type="learningOverview">
  <learningContentRef href="testlearningContent.dita" type="learningContent">
    <learningContentComponentRef href="termA.dita" type="glossentry"/>
    <learningContentComponentRef href="termB.dita" type="glossentry"/>
  <learningAssessmentRef href="testlearningAssess.dita" type="learningAssessment">
  <learningSummaryRef href="testlearningSummary.dita" type="learningSummary">


The following attributes are available on this element: Universal attribute group, Link relationship attribute group (with a narrowed definition of @href, given below), Attributes common to many map elements, Topicref element attributes group, @outputclass, @keys, and @keyref.

A pointer to the resource represented by the <topicref>. See The @href attribute for detailed information on supported values and processing implications. References to DITA content cannot be below the topic level: that is, you cannot reference individual elements inside a topic. References to content other than DITA topics should use the @format attribute to identify the kind of resource being referenced.

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